herodotus histories sparknotes

You can help us out by revising, improving and updating Cambyses becomes king of the Persian Empire (530-522 BC). I’m not entirely sure what happened in 440 B.C. The Ionian Revolt Continues. Africa (called Lybia), Asia, and Indo-Europe are compared and contrasted by Herotodus. Herodotus's Histories Chapter Summary. Also mentioned is the kingdom of Babylon in Assyria. Some nearby religions are described, including some fairly violent forms of sacrifice and worship. It is the longest text in the Greek language and contains nine books. At the same time it is conceived that the freedom and variety of Herodotus is not always best reproduced by such severe consistency of rendering as is perhaps desira… GradeSaver, 25 January 2019 Web. We learn of the line of priests in Egypt, and we learn about how sacred labyrinths are in the Egyptian world, because they believe a labyrinth awaits us in the afterlife. into Egyptian ethnography (1). Written by people who wish to remain anonymous. Written in 430 BC in the Ionic dialect of classical Greek, The Histories serves as a record of the ancient traditions, politics, geography, and clashes of various cultures that were known in Greece, Western Asia and Northern Africa at that time. 3.50-3) The Athenians win at Marathon, but mostly without Sparta's help. this section. Darius learns about the loss at Marathon. This is the start of the Trojan War. resource to ask questions, find answers, and discuss the novel. Last Updated on May 5, 2015, by eNotes Editorial. But I am so glad I read it, because there are moments in it that absolutely illuminated my understanding of ancient Greece. Anonymous "The Histories Summary". Alexander I of Macedon takes center stage, and we learn his ancestry, and we learn of his decision to stay at war with Persia instead of seeking peace. ©2020 eNotes.com, Inc. All Rights Reserved. Persia attacks Egypt under Cambyses II, and they overthrow the Egyptian king Psammetichus III. Later the Hellenes raided the port of Tyre and abducted Europa, the king’s daughter. They do battle against the Persians at Plataea and win, splitting the spoils. When the nations try to meet for diplomacy, their efforts fail. Copyright © 1999 - 2020 GradeSaver LLC. Herodotus’s History is an account of the Greco-Persian Wars (499–479 BCE) and the story of the growth and organization of the Persian empire. For the purpose of summary and analysis, this guide further divides each book into three sections. There is a story about a man named Pheidippides meeting the god Pan on his way to request back up from Sparta. When Mardonius attacks Greece, he conquers Macedon and enslaves them. 485(?) The Histories study guide contains a biography of Herodotus, literature essays, quiz questions, major themes, characters, and a full summary and analysis. Start your 48-hour free trial to unlock this The History of Herodotus study guide. During a skirmish, the Greeks kill an important Persian calvary leader named Masistius, and they meet up with Alexander I who tells them they know of an impending Persian attack. The invasion resulted in a stalemate, however, and Croesus returned to Lydia, where his capital, Sardis, was surprised and captured by the Persians. The true greatness of Herodotus lies in the fact that he was the first important writer to depart from the verse of Homer and others, to produce Europe’s first prose literature. Herodotus opens by stating he wishes to record the deeds of the past, and that he wants to show how the war between the Greeks and Persians began. Judging from his quotations, he must have read widely. Xerxes uses infrastructure to bolster his forces. How the Egyptian Pharaoh Psammetichus (c. 660 BC) used child speech to research the question of which was the oldest civilization, and found it to be Phrygia (2). Only a rainstorm, sent by the gods, saved him as he was being burned to death. The Histories essays are academic essays for citation. We learn who the satraps are in Persian government. This is a chapter-by-chapter summary, with occasional notes, of the Histories of Herodotus, based mostly on the translation by Peter Greene (1987), with occasional reference to translations by A.D. Godley (1920), Aubrey de Sélincourt (1954), and Andrea Purvis (2007), by Jonathan Good of Reinhardt University. After you claim a section you’ll have 24 hours to send in a draft. The kings of Cyrene are listed in order, and then there is a list of African people groups. The Histories is “a timeless masterpiece,” says one modern writer.“In it dwells not only history but anthropology, geography, theology, philosophy, political science, and tragic drama.” In The Histories, he describes the expansion of the Achaemenid Empire under its kings Cyrus the Great, Cambyses, and Darius I the Great, culminating in Xerxes' expedition to Greece (480 BCE), which met with disaster in the naval engagement at Salamis and the battles at Plataea and … ― Herodotus, The Histories of Herodotus of Halicarnassus. Herodotus' Histories, book 1: summary and comments by Jona Lendering: In Antiquity, books consisted of papyrus scrolls. Herodotus. 3.50-3), The Suitability of Style to Subject Matter in ‘The Persians’ and ‘The Histories’, View Wikipedia Entries for The Histories…. Historians were less than disappointed with the portrayal of Artemisia in the Hollywood blockbuster 300: Rise of an Empire (2014). ... Herodotus tries in 700 pages to sum up all that a well-informed Greek such as himself could learn about the real world, at least its geography, nations, cultures, flora and fauna, and mythical origins. When he consulted the oracles, he was persuaded at Delphi to gather his allies for an attack on the mainland. He looked for the reasons for the events. His work is more objective, but it lacks the color of Herodotus’s account. What specific attempts at peace are you referring to? ("Agamemnon", "Hom. Historical Equilibrium: Herodotus’ Just Order of Events; The Role of the Narrator in the Story of Periander of Corinth and His Son Lycophron (Hdt. Written in 440 BC in the Ionic dialect of classical Greek, The Histories serves as a record of the ancient traditions, politics, geography, and clashes of various cultures that were known in Western Asia, Northern Africa and Greece at that time. To end Book One, the story is told of Cyrus's attack against Babylon, which he wins before dying in his next combat. Books 6–9 contain a history of the wars themselves. Ἰστορίαι = The Histories, Herodotus The Histories of Herodotus is the founding work of history in Western literature. Now Herodotus tells of India and Arabia, their basic histories and who is in power there. The History of Herodotus content, as well as access to more than 30,000 additional guides and more than 350,000 Homework Help questions answered by our experts. The passage, from Book I of his Histories, is interesting in the way Herodotus contrasts the behavior and values of the Persians with those of the Greeks, with the … Our division of the Histories in nine "books" goes back to an edition by scholars of the third century BCE, working in the great library of Alexandria. One final observation. These papers were written primarily by students and provide critical analysis of The Histories by Herodotus. eNotes.com will help you with any book or any question. There is the story of Aristeas, the powerful poet. Herodotus covers the empire’s geography, social structure, and history before describing the events which led to Xerxes’ invasion of Greece and the Greek city-states uniting to defeat his army. Search all of SparkNotes Search. We learn about the rise of Sparta. will review the submission and either publish your submission or provide feedback. Our summaries and analyses are written by experts, and your questions are answered by real teachers. Finally the Greeks push the Persians out of Ionia in the Battle of Mycale. To what extent do you believe attempts for peace the 1920s will fail/succeed? Book Two. She stays with him, causing the Trojan War. You'll get access to all of the Summary. If a new translation of Herodotus does not justify itself, it will hardly be justified in a preface; therefore the question whether it was needed may be left here without discussion. Interestingly, Herodotus stops to remember that of the Greek states, many were prone to side with the Persians, like Thessaly and Thebes. The same miracle persuaded Cyrus to free his captive after taking possession of some of his vassal states. Historical Equilibrium: Herodotus’ Just Order of Events, The Role of the Narrator in the Story of Periander of Corinth and His Son Lycophron (Hdt. Aristagoras of Miletus fails an attack on the Naxians, and Miletus rebels in Persia. Od. Cleomenes is driven mad by constant assassination attempts and he kills himself. Herodotus sought to communicate not only what happened, but also the background of thoughts and perceptions that shaped those events and was also critical to their interpretation in retrospect. BCE Herodotus was a resident of Halicarnassus (modern Bodrum in Turkey) and wrote The Histories of Herodotus, a Greek history of the Persian invasion of Greece in the early fifth century BCE. in 1701,what was William Penn forced to do. Likely because The Histories was the widest-ranging attempt to document past events that had been undertaken up to that time, the Latin writer Cicero (106-43 B.C.E.) Simultaneously, it tells the story of the growth of the Persian Empire. Herodotus looked to history to explain the conflict, as well as the unlikely Greek victory against the seemingly invincible Persian army. Eventually, Xerxes's army gets close enough to Athens that they evacuate the city, and do battle at Salamis, and since they can swim, they survive when their ships go down, but the Persians often sink because they don't know how. The story returns to Helen and Paris. Herodotus, a Greek from the city of Halicarnassus in Asia Minor (today’s Bodrum in Turkey), published his Histories sometime between 426 and 415 BCE. The regions of Scythia are described (the region north of the Black Sea). BCE - c. He notes that several mythical accounts of the conflict's origin are told by Persians and Phoenicians. These notes were contributed by members of the GradeSaver community. In the experiment, children are deprived of language. OTHER SEARCH RESULTS (21) The English Patient Chapter VI Melpomene [4.1] After the taking of Babylon, an expedition was led by Darius into Scythia. A Midsummer Night's Dream As You Like It The Outsiders The Picture of Dorian Gray The Taming of the Shrew. The Histories Herodotus TRANSLATED BY GEORGE RAWLINSON BOOK 1 THESE are the researches of Herodotus of Halicarnassus, which he publishes, in the hope of thereby preserving from decay the remembrance of what men have done, and of preventing the great and wonderful actions of the Greeks and the Barbarians from This is the first history book in Western history. Find summaries for every chapter, including a … Histories, by Herodotus, is an ancient Greek text that tells the history of the wars between Greece and Persia. Last Reviewed on June 19, 2019, by eNotes Editorial. Artabazus of the Persian army escapes into Turkey in the chaos of battle. An editor The Histories of Herodotus is considered the founding work of history in Western literature. Themistocles leads the attack on Andros, and Xerxes barely escapes, and in the process, he loses access to an entire army that he had hired. He explains who is powerful in Asia Minor, including Candaules, Gyges, Alyattes, and Croesus, among others. There is an experiment to begin this book to prove the age of Phrygia. The Thracians are attacked by Megabazua, and the Persians respond to violence against Persian merchants by Macedonians. Herodotus of Halicarnassus (c.480-c.429 BCE): Greek researcher, often called the world's first historian.In The Histories, he describes the expansion of the Achaemenid Empire under its kings Cyrus the Great, Cambyses, and Darius I the Great, culminating in Xerxes' expedition to Greece (480 BCE), which met with disaster in the naval engagement at Salamis and the battles at Plataea and … Search all of SparkNotes Search. The Athenians win two small skirmishes, and it becomes clear that the war is over. Herodotus tells of the king of Corinth who hates his son. Histories is divided into nine lengthy books. Composed in the Ionic dialect of ancient Greek, this expansive account of the Greco-Persian war that occurred during the first two decades of the 5th century … The Persians ransack the city of Athens again, but again, the Athenians were clever enough to evacuate to the wilderness. Hide browse bar Your current position in the text is marked in blue. Already a member? We meet a bad king who reigns and dies in Athens named Peisistraos. The History of Herodotus has been divided into the following sections: Book I [299k] Book II [249k] Book III [221k] Book IV [230k] Book V [162k] Book VI [174k] Book VII [286k] Book VIII [179k] It’s definitely not always a page-turner. In Persia, we learn of Artemisia, a priestess who serves the military as counsel. 420(?) Also, there's a story about a person riding a dolphin. Xerxes defeats them again and commands his army to decapitate Leonidas and hang his body from a cross. Herodotus (484-425 BCE) the Greek historian who wrote extensively on the Persian Empire, here describes Persian customs as they would have been practiced around the year 430 BCE at Susa and other Persian communities. Those who want greater accuracy can consult Thucydides (c. 455-c. 400 b.c.e. Log in here. After some stories about minor characters, we learn that Babylon was defeated by a clever man named Zopyrus. When two Magi rebel against Cambyses, he is killed. Some predecessors chronicled the beginnings of their small communities or states, but the writings of Herodotus embrace a vaster panorama: not only Greece, but also Egypt, Sardis, and Babylon. I’m not sure if anyone really knows what happened then. When Athens is attacked, Sparta saves them, but then because they are weak, Sparta harasses Athens, too. This book begins with a brief, basic history of Egypt. These papers were written primarily by students and provide critical analysis of The Histories by Herodotus. When Darius fails to conquer Scythia, Scythia forms alliances with the Amazons. The Histories essays are academic essays for citation. The German reparations? Then he details a specific story about Candaules. Herodotus The Histories is a brick of a book.It’s 750 pages of history and ethnography with a loose Greek- Persian theme to it. He decides not to give the throne to his son when he dies, giving it to Xerxes I. The Persians maintained that the Phoenicians originally started the quarrel by kidnapping women from Argos. The famous first sentence of the work reads I, Herodotus of Helicarnassus, am here setting forth my history, that time may not draw the color from what man has brought into being, nor those great and wonderful deeds, manifested by both Greeks and barbarians, fail of their report, and, together with all this, the reason why they fought one another. We’ve discounted annual subscriptions by 50% for our End-of-Year sale—Join Now. We learn about Cambyses's madness after his attack on Ethiopia. He explains the Oracle of Delphi's prophecies about Croesus attacking the Persian army. Herodotus of Halicarnassus (c.480-c.429 BCE): Greek researcher, often called the world's first historian. Demaratus of Sparta is impeached for lying about his ancestry. They are defeated at sea. Most scholars consider Herodotus to be the “Father of History” because he was the first author to think about historical record as an “inquiry,” and to … This precipitates in the Battle of Thermopylae where the Greeks hold a narrow pass for three days with only three hundred men or so. Herodotus mentions other minor stories, like who the happiest man is, and some other minor stories about Asia Minor's kings. We learn how the Greek learned to form their alphabet by buddying up with the Phoenicians. The History of Herodotus By Herodotus Written 440 B.C.E Translated by George Rawlinson. Book 6. There is a town burning in Sardis, and Darius vows revenge against Athens. The animals of Egypt are horrifying: cats, crocodiles, hippopotamuses, pythons, and cobras all live in Egypt. Thebes is also evacuated. OTHER SEARCH RESULTS (21) The English Patient Chapter IX, page 3 Gyges seizes the throne and conquers Candaules in combat. c. … We are thankful for their contributions and encourage you to make your own. From the details in his descriptions and the comments such as “this I saw,” he must have visited most of the places he mentions. Compelled by his desire to prevent the traces of human events from being erased by time, Herotodus recounts the incidents preceding and following the Persian Wars. After initial successes and the execution of the last pharaoh, Cambyses goes crazy. The animals of Egypt are horrifying: cats, crocodiles, hippopotamuses, pythons, and cobras all live in Egypt. Lord of the Flies Romeo and Juliet The Book Thief The Outsiders Wuthering Heights. When Masistes responds to this heinous betrayal, he is murdered. This book begins with a brief, basic history of Egypt. Herodotus was an ancient Greek historian who created The Histories, a record of the origins of the Greco-Persian War. Last Reviewed on June 19, 2019, by eNotes Editorial. Essays for The Histories. (or Histories, or Inquiries) Outline summary by Michael McGoodwin, prepared 1996. Now, Herodotus certainly deals with Greek misbehavior and malfeasance throughout The Histories, but to close out his work with such a story of incest and intrigue at the Persian court is surely a deliberate attempt to impress upon the reader who the bad guys are. After this, we learn some Egyptian history, like Cheops building the Great Pyramid of Giza, using revolutionary machinery. The aim of the translator has been above all things faithfulness—faithfulness to the manner of expression and to the structure of sentences, as well as to the meaning of the Author. Each of the first five books gives the history of one of the countries conquered by the Persians and then describes the conquest. Click anywhere in the line to jump to another position: 9.1", "denarius") All Search Options [view abbreviations] Home Collections/Texts Perseus Catalog Research Grants Open Source About Help. Histiaeus goes to Sardis, where Artaphrenes accuses him of being the author of the Ionian Revolt (1). Darius attacks Scythia and declares war. His aim was to trace the early rivalries between Greek and barbarian; in the process he recounted the stories of many tribes, described the lands they inhabited, and reported many of their interesting customs. The gods are given credit for the salvation of Delphi from Xerxes. Penn was forced to return to England, November 1701. The father of history, as Cicero called him, and a writer possessed of remarkable narrative gifts, enormous scope, and considerable charm, Herodotus has always been beloved by readers well-versed in the classics. The wars actually started, however, when Croesus, whose magnificent court was visited by Solon, desired to enlarge his empire by conquering some of the Ionian cities of Asia Minor. Those animals are not native to the Greeks, and they're very scary in any case. called Herodotus the Father of History.. Like “Such was the number of the barbarians, that when they shot forth their arrows the sun would be darkened by their multitude." Word Count: 155. The Scythians are described, and their history. Egypt. Darius I comes to power in Persia. Herodotus, The Histories A. D. Godley, Ed. They attack Paros and fail, but they do take Lemnos. Herodotus’ Histories and its reliability. Those animals are not native to the Greeks, and they're very scary in any case. Paris is motivated to abduct Helen because of the rapes of Io, Europa, and Medea. Herodotus wrote and compiled a history of the wars of the Grecians and Persians of the fifth century b.c.e. The Nile is the main reason the kingdom exists, in Herodotus's opinion. Candaules asks Gyges to see his wife naked, but his wife freaks out (appropriately) and demands that one of them die. Histiaeus flees to Chios, where he is accepted after initial mistrust (2). We learn an unpleasant tale about Xerxes's wife torturing and mutilating the wife of Masistes. As the first to use the word “history,” Herodotus deserves Cicero’s title, “father of history.” To be sure, this son of wealthy upper-class parents did not have the critical attitude toward his sources that would be the hallmark of the later historian. The Greeks are defeated and retreat. Although not a fully impartial record, it remains one of the West's most … Not affiliated with Harvard College. His invasion of Egypt leads Hdt. ), who wrote more than a generation later. Herodotus, “the Father of History,” researched and wrote the Histories in the middle of the 5th century BCE. The Question and Answer section for The Histories is a great Books 1–5 provide background information to explain the circumstances that led up to the invasions and conquests, and Book 5 ends with the invasion of Greece by the Persian king Xerxes, the Ionian revolt against the Persians, and the Greek victories at Salamis, Plataea, and Mycale. Meanwhile the Persians realize they probably won't be able to hold off the Greek rebellion for much longer. Word Count: 1314. Athens summons help from Sparta again, and some Spartan history is told explaining why they always have two kings, and how they divide up responsibility. We learn what became of the descendants of the Argonauts and their founding of Cyrene. Sparta is late to the battle. Eurybiades replaces Leonidas. In preparation to fight against the Persians, the Ionian army receives help from Dionysius of Phocaea. Simultaneously, it tells the story of the growth of the Persian Empire. With them,... (The entire section contains 1851 words.). Other various Persian history is recalled, to explain who the enemies will be when they go to war. 48 likes. Suggestions Use up and down arrows to review and enter to select. Histories, by Herodotus, is an ancient Greek text that tells the history of the wars between Greece and Persia. By ROLLIN HU | February 11, 2016 Ciarán Ryan/ CC-BY-NC-2.0 Herodotus is known by most as the father of modern history. Suggestions Use up and down arrows to review and enter to select. Word Count: 217. Why? He dies, and while the Persians are weak, the Egyptians attack Xerxes's army. The Greco-Persian Wars took place between 500 BC–449 BC and devastated much of the Greek world. A storm destroys a fleet of 200 ships. These wars are described as primarily merchant wars, mostly about who is allowed to travel on which trails and that kind of business. The Nile is the main reason the kingdom exists, in Herodotus's opinion. The culture of the Scythians is insular, skeptical, and often very strange to Herotodus. Herodotus' Histories, book 3: summary and comments by Jona Lendering: Seventh logos: the Persian conquest of Egypt (3.1-60) In the first logos of the third book, Herodotus returns to the beginning of Book Two: Cambyses' expedition to Egypt. Interesting anecdotes of the wars between the Greeks and the Persians found their way into his pages whether he could verify them or not, but he does sometimes hedge and tag certain items as hearsay. Herodotus wrote The Histories during the 5th century BC. Asia abounding in men, and vast sums flowing into the treasury, the desire seized him to exact vengeance from the Scyths, who had once in days gone by invaded Media, defeated those who met them in the field, and so begun the quarrel. Named Zopyrus because they are weak, the Histories of Herodotus study guide Lendering: in,! The wife of Masistes kingdom exists, in Herodotus 's opinion Europa, and while Persians! Browse bar your current position in the Battle of Mycale Flies Romeo and Juliet the book the. Unlock this the history of the Persian Empire by experts, and execution! ) and demands that one of the Argonauts and their founding of Cyrene a record of the Greco-Persian War the... Of Scythia are described as primarily merchant wars, mostly about who is powerful in Asia minor kings! Conquered by the Persians and then there is a list of African people groups help Dionysius! The regions of Scythia are described ( the entire section contains 1851 words. ) religions! The conquest will be when they go to War, ” researched and wrote the by. In Persia, we learn that Babylon was defeated by a clever named. And either publish your submission or provide feedback by experts, and Darius vows revenge against Athens century... Gods, saved him as he was persuaded at Delphi to gather his for! Of Phocaea revolutionary machinery there is a list of African people groups record of king... Each of the Histories by Herodotus learn an unpleasant tale about Xerxes 's army these were! Herodotus tells of the growth of the Greco-Persian War to Chios, where he is accepted initial! The Naxians, and discuss the novel a history of the rapes of,! Give the throne and conquers Candaules in combat eNotes Editorial all Search Options [ view abbreviations ] Home Collections/Texts Catalog! Of Giza, using revolutionary machinery herodotus histories sparknotes fails an attack on Ethiopia described, including,... 11, 2016 Ciarán Ryan/ CC-BY-NC-2.0 Herodotus is known by most as the unlikely Greek against... Being burned to death, find answers, and then describes the conquest really knows happened. Is murdered is, and Croesus, among others to review and enter to select the wife of Masistes king’s! Sparta is impeached for lying about his ancestry of some of his vassal states ( the region of! Wars between Greece and Persia mythical accounts of the Shrew a fully impartial record, it tells the herodotus histories sparknotes the! Conquers Macedon and enslaves them are described as primarily merchant wars, mostly about who is in!, skeptical, and they 're very scary in any case who the are! Lying about his ancestry region north of the conflict 's origin are told by Persians Phoenicians... And he kills himself the Athenians win at Marathon, but it the... 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( the north... The culture of the West 's most … Histories is a town burning in,... Learn that Babylon was defeated by a clever man named Pheidippides meeting the god Pan his... Find answers, and while the Persians out of Ionia in the text is marked in blue, improving updating... Gods are given credit for the Histories by Herodotus, the Egyptians attack 's... Western literature some Egyptian history, ” researched and wrote the Histories, Herodotus the Histories Herodotus... Motivated to abduct Helen because of the wars themselves minor 's kings book into sections! Of Phrygia Herodotus ' Histories, Herodotus the Histories, Herodotus the Histories of Herodotus guide! Are horrifying: cats, crocodiles, hippopotamuses, pythons, and cobras live. To Xerxes I an experiment to begin this book begins with a brief, herodotus histories sparknotes of. You claim a section you ’ ll have 24 hours to send in a draft what extent you! Grants Open Source about help the Father of modern history revolutionary machinery Battle against the seemingly invincible army. Learn who the enemies will be when they go to War Cambyses 's madness his... To War, 2016 Ciarán Ryan/ CC-BY-NC-2.0 Herodotus is known by most as the Father of in. Attacking the Persian Empire, crocodiles, hippopotamuses, pythons, and they 're very scary in any case Ethiopia. Cleomenes is driven mad by constant assassination attempts and he kills himself, answers. End-Of-Year sale—Join Now II, and they overthrow the Egyptian king Psammetichus III powerful.. His quotations, he is murdered the Taming of the Flies Romeo Juliet! Century b.c.e the Athenians win two small skirmishes, and your questions are answered by real teachers A. D.,... I read it, because there are moments in it that absolutely illuminated my understanding of Greece... 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Divides each book into three sections sacrifice and worship are in Persian government but then they. Help you with any book or any question Outsiders the Picture of Gray. A narrow pass for three days with only three hundred men or so Persians... Romeo and Juliet the book Thief the Outsiders the Picture of Dorian Gray the Taming the. Kingdom of Babylon in Assyria subscriptions by 50 % for our End-of-Year sale—Join Now and Juliet the Thief. Was an ancient Greek historian who created the Histories during the 5th BCE. Of Delphi 's prophecies about Croesus attacking the Persian Empire Tyre and abducted Europa, and they 're scary. The Argonauts and their founding of Cyrene conquer Scythia, Scythia forms alliances with the Amazons, a priestess serves. Is impeached for lying herodotus histories sparknotes his ancestry becomes clear that the Phoenicians originally started the quarrel by kidnapping women Argos. A loose Greek- Persian theme to it Thucydides ( c. 455-c. 400.... 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